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08-Dec-2015 22:12

The impact of the Neolithic dispersal on the western European populations is subject to continuing debate.

To trace and date genetic lineages potentially brought during this transition and so understand the origin of the gene pool of current populations, we studied DNA extracted from human remains excavated in a Spanish funeral cave dating from the beginning of the fifth millennium B. Thanks to a “multimarkers” approach based on the analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (autosomes and Y-chromosome), we obtained information on the early Neolithic funeral practices and on the biogeographical origin of the inhumed individuals. Maternal haplogroups found are consistent with pre-Neolithic settlement, whereas the Y-chromosomal analyses permitted confirmation of the existence in Spain approximately 7,000 y ago of two haplogroups previously associated with the Neolithic transition: G2a and E1b1b1a1b.

This could either confirm a Neolithic origin of E-V13 or, my recent proposal that E1b1b crossed from Africa to Europe before the Neolithic.

Spain is indeed the most likely point of entry from North Africa, along with South Italy.

Another interesting point is that they mention that the mitochondrial lineages are mostly pre-Neolithic. think that these maternal lineages are pre-Neolithic, except for the U5 and H3.

If Neolithic farmers kept marrying local girls (from the hunter-gatherer community), that would explain why West Asian autosomal genes diminish gradually as we move further away from the Middle East. Mt-haplogroup K, and K1a in particular, is so far the most overrepresented among Neolithic samples (16%) compared to the present-day population.

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There is an interesting inversion of frequency between mt DNA hg J and T in the early and late Neolithic.

It's interesting though that the best modern matches for this Neolithic E-V13 are in Montenegro, Armenia and the Druze from the Levant. If only they had also provided comparisons for North Africa ! And my thoughts that J2a entered Europe together with the early Indo-Europeans are getting stronger. The LP-13910-C/T SNP associated with lactase persistence was successfully typed for all ancient samples tested. So your final statement doesn't mean anything, it's rather likely that Northern Spain was already inhabited by this people and similars according to this finding.

How could they look at Irish, Scandinavian and Polish E-V13 but not North African one ? The mutated position would have appeared during the dissemination of the Linear pottery culture in central Europe. But I must admit that my doubts on the Paleolithic R1b are growing. Moreover: Rosellón was part of Catalonia till very recent times, and the fact that the highest Southwestern scores are reported (according to what we know) between ethnic Catalans, being also very high in the average Iberians, gives an idea that there were different I2a peoples inhabiting the Peninsula since very ancient times, and that they were numerous.

This E-V13 surely contributed to the Northwest/East African components we see in the latest results for Iberians.

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However, it's difficult to say in other parts of Europe (specially around the Balkans) which kind of influence carried. While I expected E1b to show up there, I did NOT expect E1b-V13 to show up in Iberia, if said subclade is today dominant on the Balkans.

Possibly the Southeastern component from the Euro7 calculator has something to do with it, but needs to be separated more from the Middle East. On the other hand the occurence of G2a is not exactly surprising now after Derenburg, Treilles and Ötzi - it merely reaffirms the other sites.



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